What is Gini-coefficient?
Gini coefficient which also known as Gini-index and Gini ratio is the most commonly used measure of inequality. Gini coefficient help us to learn inequalities of countries.
”The coefficient varies between 0, which reflects complete equality and 1, which indicates complete inequality (one person has all the income or consumption, all others have none). Graphically, the Gini coefficient can be easily represented by the area between the Lorenz curve and the line of equality.”
The Gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution.
Gini coefficient uses at lots of subject like sociology,economy etc.
This system means to racism in South Africa. [‘Aprtheid’ word meaning “the state of being apart.”] This is based on skin colors. The system said that if you’re black you can not benefit from the education,health fields of your country. Skin colors uses in make decision of people living good or not. People classified as their colors. With the Nelson Mandela power, this system is removed. The changed the rules and provided democracy in South Africa.
“Under apartheid, South Africans were classified into four different races: white, black, coloured, and Indian/Asian.”
The South African activist and former president Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) helped bring an end to apartheid and has been a global advocate for human rights. Nelson Mandela was one of the giants on the world stage.
“No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.” Nelson Mandela
Inequality in post-apartheid South Africa
“Many of the inequalities created and maintained by apartheid still remain in South Africa. Under apartheid, South Africans were classified into four different races: white, black, coloured, and Indian/Asian.”
“Despite many ANC policies aimed at closing the poverty gap, blacks make up over 90% of the country’s poor at the same time they are 79.5% of the population.”
Nelson Mandela, famously wrote:
“There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires.”
Some 20 years after the country’s peaceful transition to democracy, many obstacles hinder this walk to freedom. And they are largely defined by South Africa’s significant welfare challenges. Using the national poverty line of $43 per month (in current prices), 47 percent of South Africans remain poor. In 1994, this figure was 45.6 percent. More jarring, the country’s unemployment rate is 25.4 percent, while the Gini coefficient, which measures inequality, is at 0.69, marking the country as one of the most unequal in the world.
As can be seen in the table to the left (taken from Race, Class, and Inequality in South Africa), the Gini coefficient for the white population in 1975 stood at a relatively low .36, signifying the success of the apartheid government in bolstering the position of the poorer members of the white community. An essential component of this program was the reservation of well-paying jobs for the white population. Furthermore, when taking into account welfare expenditures and educational opportunities, the white population actually had greater equality than the Gini index shows.
For South Africa generally, one of the more robust measures of inequality called the Gini coefficient rose from .66 to .70 between 1993 and 2008, indicating growing inequality. But it increased even more sharply from .54 to .62–in the African community itself.
Mining industry of South Africa
In 1867, the diamond discovered on Orange River. Than mining become a popular sector in South Africa.
“Currently, mining in South Africa:
- contributes an average of 20% to South Africa’s GDP, of which about 50% is contributed directly.
- boasts total annual income exceeding R330 billion.
- is one of the country’s major employers, with more than one million people in mining-related employment.
- is the largest contributor by value to black economic empowerment in the economy.”
SELIN SUT 11424028